Thursday, May 24

Plenary III: Tom Kenny

Paper Title Authors
PL3: Encapsulated MEMS: What’s Good for the Resonator is Good for the Sensor

Tom Kenny


Since the demonstration of the Resonant Gate Transistor by Harvey Nathason and his team more than 50 years ago, we’ve all been interested in the potential application of MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) for timing applications.  Of course, there were obstacles, with the biggest associated with the frequency stability of MEMS resonators.  After significant effort, we found that stability in MEMS resonators could be improved by ultra-clean high-temperature encapsulation processes.  Today, oscillators based on MEMS resonators are providing stability competitive with the best quartz-based oscillators, with improved size, power, weight, reliability, and cost.  

Since the earliest demonstration of MEMS inertial sensors for automotive applications more than 30 years ago, we’ve all be interested in the potential application of these devices for inertial navigation applications.  Of course, there were obstacles, with the biggest associated with the stability of MEMS sensors.  There has been extensive effort on development of materials, operational schemes and other approaches to overcome stability issues.  Our group has been exploring one central question : can we build inertial sensors in an encapsulation process similar to that used for the highest-stability MEMS resonators, and is this a path towards ultra-stable inertial MEMS sensors? 


ThO1.1 - Phase noise, Oscillators and Digital Control

Moderator: Michael Underhill

Paper Title Authors Executive Summary
ThO111: 10-15fractional-frequency reproducibility in tenths of seconds: criteria, implications, and prospects David Howe Optical atomic standards now require only mere seconds of averaging to achieve unrivaled performance. This lecture will cover the fact that this ultra-low level of 'flicker-floor' and realized over many tau-decades makes possible a new set of non-traditional, operational domains.
ThO112: Highly Stable Miniaturized OCXO with Heater-Embedded Ceramic Package Wan-Lin Hsieh, Che-Lung Hsu, Chia-Wei Chen, Chen-Ya Weng, Sheng-Hsiang Kao A miniaturized OCXO in the size of 9.7 x 7.5 mm consisting of heater-embedded ceramic package with SC-cut crystal is presented. This OCXO has achieved ±3 ppb over -40 to 85 ˚C. In addition, we also demonstrated the proposed OCXO could be compliance support for Stratum 3E requirements.
ThO113: Exploiting Mutual Fractional Synchronization to Improve Amplitude and Frequency Stability in Micromechanical Oscillators Parsa Taheri-Tehrani, Martial Defoort, David Horsley We show that using mutual fractional synchronization of two oscillators created from two distinct resonance modes of a single micromechanical resonator with 3:1 fractional frequency ratio, we can reduce amplitude and frequency noise by a factor of 4.
ThO114: Digital implementation of various locking schemes of ultrastable photonics systems Baptiste Marechal, Arthur Hugeat, Gwenhaël Goavec-Mérou, Gonzalo Cabodevila, Jacques Millo, Clément Lacroûte, Pierre-Yves Bourgeois We report on fully digital implementation of various locking schemes within the frame of microwave photonics systems.
We demonstrate similar performances over their analog counterparts, with a net gain on flexibility and reconfigurability.


ThO1.2: Optical References

Moderators: Lin Yi and Tetsuya Ido

Paper Title Authors Executive Summary
ThO121: The Optical Stark Shift on a Two-Photon Transition in Rubidium Kyle Martin, Nathan Lemke, Gretchen Phelps, John Burke Two-photon transitions present an appealing option for future GNSS clocks but are known to suffer from large AC Stark shifts. We present an analysis of the AC Stark shift in the 5S 1/2 →5D 5/2 two photon transition of Rb, along with an improved determination of the blackbody radiation Stark shift.
ThO122: A Compact Optical Iodine Frequency Reference On A Sounding Rocket Klaus Döringshoff, Franz Gutsch, Vladimir Schkolnik, Evgeny Kovalchuk, Markus Krutzik, Achim Peters, Markus Oswald, Thilo Schuldt, Claus Braxmaier, Christian Kürbis, Ahmad Bawamia, Andreas Wicht, Benjamin Pröbster, Matthias Lezius, Ron We present an absolute optical frequency reference at 1064 nm based on precision spectroscopy of molecular iodine. The iodine reference will be compared to a vacuum compatible dual frequency comb during a sounding rocket flight, scheduled for April 2018.
ThO123: Silicon cavity at 4 Kelvin with thermal noise limited performance John Robinson, Eric Oelker, Wei Zhang, Lindsay Sonderhouse, Will Milner, John Hall, Christian Sanner, Jun Ye, Dan Matei, Thomas Legero, Fritz Riehle, Uwe Sterr We present, for the first time, the thermal noise limited performance of a cryogenic ultrastable silicon optical cavity operated at 4 K. A three-cornered comparison shows that the 4 K system is largely limited by a flicker frequency floor near 7x10-17 for averaging times from 5 to 30 seconds.
ThO124: A microrod-resonator in ambient environment for stable optical and microwave frequencies Wei Zhang, Fred Baynes, Scott Diddams, Scott Papp We report a whispering-gallery mode microrod for stable optical and microwave frequency generation in ambient conditions. A thermal noise limited fractional frequency stability at the 10-13 level is achieved; a low noise microwave is obtained by stabili to the microrod free-spectral range
ThO125: Detailed Characteristics and Cavity Stabilization of Dual-wavelength Good-bad Cavity Active Optical Clock Duo Pan, Tiantian Shi, Jingbiao Chen We realize a dual-wavelength cavity active optical clock and measure the characteristics of the output signals. We build two independent systems and lock their cavity length. Heterodyning between the two systems are conducted to obtain the frequency stability of the active optical clock.


ThO1.3: Acoustic Devices

Moderators: Azadeh Ansari and Cristian Cassella

Paper Title Authors Executive Summary
Th0131: High-Cx/Co Hollow Disk Resonators Alper Ozgurluk, Yafei Li, Clark T.-C Nguyen Mass and stiffness reduction by hollowing out a capacitive-gap transduced radial mode disk resonator while keeping resonance frequency and transduction area the same has yielded a measured electromechanical coupling strength (Cx/Co) of 0.56% at 123 MHz.
Th0132: Near-Zero TCF of HAL SAW Resonator with LiTaO3-on-Quartz Structure Michio Kadota, Yoshimi Yunoki, Takehito Shimatsu, Miyuki Uomoto, Shuji Tanaka A new type of SAW resonators were fabricated by combining a thin LiTaO3 plate with a negative TCF and a quartz with a positive TCF and a higher LSAW velocity. An impedance ratio of 82 dB and a Bode Q of 3,000, and TCFs at series and parallel resonances were measured to be +2 and -10 ppm/oC, respectively.
Th0132: Piezoelectrically Transduced Lamé-mode Resonators and Oscillators Sheng-Shian Li, Gayathri Pillai Fundamental Lamé-mode using piezoelectric thin film transduction is reported for the first time. At 21MHz in air and -30dBm power, it has motional resistance of 2.17k&[Omega] and a loaded quality factor of 5500. A phase noise of -112dBc/Hz at 1kHz offset and -119dBc/Hz at 10kHz offset was measured.
Th0133: SAW correlators in LiNbO3 and GaN on sapphire Siddhartha Ghosh, John Cafarella This work demonstrates SAW correlators in bulk lithium niobate (LN) and GaN on sapphire. LN is used to characterize correlators with 15 dB peak to sidelobe ratio. The same designs transferred to GaN on sapphire are fabricated with acoustoelectric gain sections to mitigate propagation losses.
Th0134: Phononic Frequency Combs in Standalone Piezoelectric Resonators Mingyo Park, Azadeh Ansari We report the first demonstration of phononic frequency combs in a single acoustic cavity of only 30umx30um. By taking advantage of piezoelectric mode-coupling of highly-nonlinear AlN flexural resonators, frequency combs are generated and tuned due to N-wave mixing of signal and idler modes.


Poster Session II: Resonator Devices and Materials

Moderator: Max Zeng-Hui Wang

Paper Title Authors Executive Summary
ThP01: Polarization Sensitive Black Phosphorus Nanomechanical Resonators Philip Feng, Arnob Islam, Anno van den Akker We report on the demonstration of polarization sensitive black phosphorus (P) nanomechanical resonators by utilizing the in-plane optical anisotropy of black P. The observed polarization sensitive tunabilty of resonance frequency can be utilized to realize future polarimetric devices.
ThP02: Metallization Design Investigations for Graphene as a Virtually Massless Electrode Material for 2.1 GHz Solidly Mounted (BAW-SMR) Resonators Marius Knapp, Volker Cimalla, Vadim Lebedev, Oliver Ambacher In this work, we show that graphene is a suitable electrode material for BAW-SMR devices in the RF domain by strongly reducing electrode-induced viscous losses due to its virtually massless character with a triplication of the quality factor at parallel resonance frequency.
ThP03: Effective Surface Enhancement of Nanomechanical Disk Resonators Using CNT for Mass Sensing Applications VAHID QARADAGHI, Behnoush Dousti, Ye Choi, Gil Sik Lee, Siavash Pourkamali In this work nanoelectromechanical (NEM) disk resonators were fabricated and characterized as a highly sensitive mass sensors. The surface of NEM disk resonators was covered by carbon nanotube (CNT).
ThP04: Suspended Frame Structure with Phononic Crystals for Anchor Loss Reduction of MEMS Resonator Fei-Hong Bao, Lei-Lei Bao, Mohammed Awad, Xin-Yi Li, Zhao-Hui Wu, Jing-Fu Bao, Xiao-Sheng Zhang A novel geometry design with a suspended frame structure integrated with phononic crystals (PnC) unit cells was demonstrated to significantly reduce the anchor loss of ring-shaped thin-film piezoelectric-on-silicon bulk acoustic wave resonator and then enhance its Q.
ThP05: High kt2.Q Waveguide-Based ScAlN-on-Si UHF and SHF Resonators Roozbeh Tabrizian, Mayur Ghatge, Valeriy Felmetsger This paper reports, for the first time, on scandium-doped aluminum nitride-on-silicon (ScAlN-on-Si) in- and out-of-plane Lamb-wave resonators that simultaneously provide large electromechanical coupling coefficient (2) and high quality-factor (Q) over the UHF and SHF regimes.
ThP06: Nanoelectromechanical Resonators Enabled by Si-Doped Semiconducting &[beta]-Ga2O3Nanobelts Philip Feng, Xuqian Zheng, Jaesung Lee, Subrina Rafique, Hongping Zhao We demonstrate the first Si-doped, ultra-wide-bandgap semiconducting &[beta]-Ga NEMS resonators with doubly clamped structures. We demonstrate both electrical and optical signal transduction schemes, and realize robust multimode HF and VHF &[beta]-Ga 3NEMS resonators.
ThP07: A Novel Multiple-Frequency RF-MEMS Resonator With Optimized Electrode Design Jinling Yang, Xiao Kan, Zeji Chen, Quan Yuan, Fengxiang Wang, Fuhua Yang This paper presents a novel multi-electrodes MEMS disk resonator vibrating in the whispering gallery modes. Multi-mode resonance can be driven simultaneously with multiple frequencies output of 56-176 MHz and high quality factors around 10000 for a 37 μm-radius disk resonator in atmosphere.
ThP08: The 'hiccup' SAW resonators on strong piezoelectric substrates Victor Plessky, Filip Iliev, Julius Koskela Fast FEM software is used to simulate and minimize the bulk wave radiation loss in a 'hiccup' resonator in which physical gap is replaced by an IDT section with reduced pitch. Even for the leaky wave substrate (42&[deg]LT), a Q-factor similar to that of long synchronous resonator can be achieved.
ThP09: Magnetostrictive-based Quartz MEMS RF Sensors Randall Kubena, Xiangnan Pang, Yook-Kong Yong, Walter Wall, Richard Joyce AT-cut shear-mode UHF quartz MEMS resonators have been found to be highly sensitive to magnetic and electric signals when magnetostrictive films are deposited on the top electrode surface. The induced voltages due to applied external magnetic and electric signals have been computed.
ThP10: Strain Transfer and Creep in All-Quartz Packaged SAW Strain Sensors Victor Kalinin, Arthur Leigh, Aidrian Nowell, Clarence Pilgrim An all-quartz package (AQP) for a resonant SAW strain sensor is discussed and strain transfer in it is studied. Creep of strain in the SAW substrate is simulated using a viscoelastic model for the adhesives. An observed anomalous creep of the resonant frequencies is explained theoretically.


Poster Session II - Measurements, Synthesis, and OEOs

Moderator: Craig Nelson

Paper Title Authors Executive Summary
ThP11: Effect of Local Oscillator Performance on UWB Based Indoor Localization System Archita Hati, Fabio daSilva, Vladislav Gerginov, Craig Neslon We discuss performance of a commercial Ultra-wideband (UWB) ranging technique for indoor localization. We study the influence of local oscillator's phase noise and its frequency drifts due to temperature variations on the range estimation and ranging stability.
ThP12: Effects of electronic frequency dividers on angle modulated signals and their potential applications in frequency analysis frequency analysis DIpen Barot, Lingze Duan We propose EFD-aided frequency analysis, which is capable of discriminating an ANM featuring large &[beta] from an ANM featuring small &[beta]. Furthermore, the method can also quantitatively determine the modulation parameters for WBFM, leading to detailed understanding of the original spectrum.
ThP14: A Low SWaP-C prototype Ka-band Frequency Synthesizer for Atomic Clocks Lin Yi, Michael Toennies, Eric Burt, Robert Tjoelker We present a low Size, weight, power and cost(SWaP-C) prototype circuit of a Ka-band frequency synthesizer, which employs micro-Hertz resolution, consumes only 1.6 Watts and maintains short-term instability of 7.3E-14 at 1 s, whileusing COTS parts for agile prototyping.
ThP15: Phase noise measurement of RF devices using full digital phase noise measurement method Takeshi Imaike, Kazuya Kouchi We proposed new method of the phase noise measurement for RF devices based on full digital phase noise measurement system. We clarified that phase noise of the RF device can be measured by inserting DUT as part of full digital phase noise measurement system.
ThP16: SDR Measurement of Phase and Noise and Frequency Shifts for Enhanced Dynamic Range without Random Spurs or Spectrum Collapse Michael Underhill Novel SDR Phase Noise Measurement Technique avoiding random spurs and spectrum-collapse and with state-of-the-art dynamic range. Also fast micro-Herz frequency difference measurement of frequency standards by phase.
ThP17: A Physical Sine-to-Square Converter Noise Model Attila Kinali We analyze the different noise sources within a sine-to-square converter and give predictive formulas for white and flicker phase noise based on physical properties of the circuit.
ThP18: Highly Stable and Low Phase Noise 10 GHz RF Signal Generation Based on a Sub-Harmonic Injection Locked Optoelectronic Oscillator Huanfa Peng, Huayang Du, Rui Guo, Yongchi Xu, Cheng Zhang, Jingbiao Chen, Zhangyuan Chen A low phase noise and highly stable 10 GHz RF signal generation system based on a sub-harmonic injection locked OEO is demonstrated. By injecting a sub-harmonic of the 10 GHz OEO to the OEO loop, the phase noise at 10 Hz offset is reduced by 40 dB when compared with the free-running OEO.
ThP19: Filter optimization for real time digital processing of radiofrequency signals: application to oscillator metrology jean-michel friedt, arthur hugeat, julien bernard, gwenhael goavec-merou, pierre-yves bourgeois SDR provides stability, flexibility and reconfigurability to RF signal processing. Real time RF processing must be performed in a FPGA to meet timing constraints: optimization strategiesto design filters meeting rejection characteristics and limiting hardware resourcesare invesitgated
ThP20: Low Phase Noise 20 GHz Microwave Frequency Divider Based on a Super-Harmonic Injection Locked Optoelectronic Oscillator Huanfa Peng, Rui Guo, Huayang Du, Yongchi Xu, Cheng Zhang, Jingbiao Chen, Zhangyuan Chen A low phase noise 20 GHz microwave frequency divider based on a super-harmonic injection locked optoelectronic oscillator is demonstrated. The phase noise performance and RF conversion gain of the proposed frequency divider are -130 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset and 15 dB, respectively.
ThP21: Forced Opto-electronic Oscillators Using Efficient PBG Based Phase Modulators Francis Pantano, Kai Wei, Siddhesh Jagdale, Tianchi Sun, Afshin Daryoush, Ajay Poddar, Ulrich Rohde This paper gives the simulated phase noise results of SILPLL OEO using PBG-PM and Sagnac loop compatible with Si-Photonics for an X-band frequency synthesizer. The predicted phase noise is -160dBc/Hz at 10kHz offset for PBG-PM and 20dB higher phase noise for commercially available LN MZM.


Poster Session II: Vapor-Cell Clocks and Applications

Moderator: David Howe

Paper Title Authors Executive Summary
ThP22: Study of quantitative calculation of CPT resonances considering Zeeman sub-levels of Cs-D1 line Yuichiro Yano, Kenji Matsuda, Shigeyoshi Goka, Masatoshi Kajita We developed a simulator which calculates the CPT resonances of all the energy levels of the Cs-D1 line. The simulator enables to analyze the CPT resonances of not only the clock transition but also all Zeeman sub-levels. The calculation was in good agreement with the experiment quantitatively.
ThP24: Coherent Population Trapping Atomic Clock by Phase Modulation to Utilize a 3.5 GHz-band-FBAR VCO Yuichiro Yano, Motoaki Hara, Masatoshi Kajita, Tetsuya Ido A simple system of a coherent population (CPT) atomic clock by phase modulation (PM) is proposed to utilize a 3.5 GHz-band-FBAR-VCO. Because the PM method can provide wider locking range, it enables to lock the VCO with wide frequency tolerance to the atomic resonance without a PLL circuitry.
ThP25: Progress in Suppressing Dick Effect in the Ramsey-CPT Atomic Clock by Interleaving Lock Jianwei Zhang, Pengfei Cheng, Xiaolin Sun, Jianhui Tu, Zhaoquan Wang, Jingzhong Cui, Lijun Wang The Dick effect is one of the main limits for most atomic clock operated in a pulsed mode.In this paper, we report our experimental progress in suppressing Dick effect in Cs Ramsey-CPT atomic clock by two atomic ensembles with interleaving lock.
ThP26: New Progress towards Chip-Scale Atomic Clock in Peking University Jianye Zhao, Ping Guo, Haoyuan Lu, Ruiyuan Liu, Hongling Meng, Chaoquan Wang, Dayong Chen An ultra-low power consumed chip-scale atomic clock based on Rb 87 CPT resonance was reported in this paper. The power consumption of physical package was dramatically dropped to 10 mW, and thus the total power is below 150 mW. Long term frequency stability with 8.91&[times]10-12 at 1000s is obtained.
ThP27: A compact optical module for cesium atomic clocks Yanhui Wang, Ziyu Chen, Chang Liu, Shuhui Wang, Lingxiang Li We have designed a compact optical module with a light-power-stabilization function for cesium atomic clocks. The laser power stability of this optical module reaches 3.1&[times]10-6 at 105 s, and the stability of the cesium atomic clock adopting it reaches 1.4&[times]10-13 at 104 s.
ThP28: Alkali Metal Dispenser Utilizing Scalloped Silicon Groove for Microfbricated Vapor Cells Yoshikazu Hirai, Katsuo Nakamura, Yuichi Kimoto, Toshiyuki Tsuchiya, Osamu Tabata We report a novel Cs dispenser composed of CsN deposited in Si groove with multiple re-entrant structures to enhance Cs production. Sufficient amount of Cs has been observed in the wafer-level fabricated MEMS cells by thermal decomposition at the temperature of 315 &[deg]C for about 15 min.
ThP29: The 2nd-Harmonic Signal in the Rb Atomic Clock for 'Status-of-Health' Monitoring Andrew Hudson, James Camparo In the Rb clock the 2nd harmonic signal, S , is often a "Status-of-Health" indicator. This role derives from the Quasi-Static Approximation (QSA), though operating conditions violate QSA assumptions. Here, we discuss temperature gradients and their role in S 's health-monitoring ability.
ThP30: Development of a Next-Generation Integrated Photonics Chip-Scale Atomic Clock Zachary Warren, Travis Driskell, Adam Scofield, Pavel Ionov, Andrew Stapleton, James Camparo We have developed a testbed for characterizing and optimizing a dual modulation scheme for high precision atomic clock operation, which can be miniaturized with integrated photonics components. We are designing and developing these components for evaluation in the testbed.


Poster Session II: Sensors and TransducersI

Moderator: Fabien Josse

Paper Title Authors Executive Summary
ThP32: Method for measuring the properties of liquid by a single QCM at different temperatures Shuang Liao, Peng Ye, Feng Tan Previous works reported method to measure properties of liquid only using a single QCM, based on the frequency response analysis at room temperature. In this paper, experimental results demonstrate the method is valid at 20℃,30℃, 40℃, 50℃, respectively.
ThP33: Probing Ion Radiation Effects in Si Crystals by 3D Integrated Resonating Thin Diaphragms Philip Feng, Hailong Chen, Hao Jia, Vida Pashaei, Wenjun Liao, Charles Arutt, Michael McCurdy, Robert Reed, Donald Schrimpf, Peter Hung, Michael Alles A novel 3D scheme of using 5 vertically stacked micromachined vibrating Si diaphragms exposed to energetic oxygen ions. We have observed different frequency redshift in different discrete stack layers due to different type and magnitude of damages
ThP34: Stress Generation in Terfenol-D using HBAR for NV Center Based Hybrid Sensor Kasturi Saha, Ashlesha Patil We propose a method for applying controlled, spatially non-uniform stress to a ultra precision nanoscale spatially non-uniform stress sensor using HBAR, required for experimental validation of its functionality. The sensor is composed of a magnetostrictive layer on diamond with NV centers.
ThP35:AlN/ZnO/LiNbO3 as a promising multilayered structure for RFID WLAW sensors Cécile Floer, Sami Hage-Ali, Omar Elmazria, Pascal Nicolay, Sergei Zhgoon, Natalya Naumenko A multilayered structure (AlN/ZnO/LiNbO3-Y128), implemented as a packageless SAW RFID sensor, is presented in this paper. Preliminary FEM simulations show that the structure acts as a waveguide for at least one useful mode with a high electromechanical coupling factor.
ThP36: Compact Atomic Magnetometer for Global Navigation (NAV-CAM) Michael Larsen, Dennis Bevan, Michael Bulatowicz, Philip Clark, Robert Griffith, Marta Luengo-Kovac, James Pavell The Compact Atomic Magnetometer under development by Northrop Grumman delivered a full 3-axis vector field measurement in a compact package with a single vapor cell. The stability, repeatability, and accuracy goals for the sensor will enable new approaches to global navigation.
ThP37: Scalar differential equations for transversely varying thickness modes in doubly-rotated quartz crystal sensors Haifeng Zhang, Huijing he, Jiashi Yang, John Kosinski we generalize the two-dimensional scalar differential equation by Stevens and Tiersten for transversely varying thickness-shear vibrations of doubly-rotated quartz plate sensors to include the effects of surface acoustic loadings.


Poster Session II: Timekeeping, Time & Frequency Transfer, GNSS Applications

Moderator: Pierre Ulrich

Paper Title Authors Executive Summary
ThP38: High Precision Time Transfer Using Low Cost Optical Transceiver Module Jie Zhang, Zhonghua Li The optical fiber two-way time transfer (OFTWTF) using bidirectional low cost WDM module achieve less than 40ps/1s and 5ps/1000s for 20Km fiber link
ThP39: Accurate Signal Transmission Delay Measurement in Optical Fibers with Self-calibration Configuration Bo Wang, Hongwei Si, Jingwen Dong, Lijun Wang We demonstrate a compact signal transmission delay measurement system in optical fibers. The signal transmission delay is obtained in frequency domain. The system delay is monitored in real-time and subtracted from the measurement result. It achieves sub-picosecond uncertainty.
ThP40: Microwave frequency dissemination at NTSC Cuichen Zhao, Wenyu Zhao, Lulu Yan, Yanyan Zhang, Wenge Guo, Shougang Zhang, Haifeng Jiang The 10-GHz signal is transferred through a 50-km optical fiber spool with fractional frequency instability of 8.1E-15 at 1-s integration time and 1.7E-18 at 8192-s integration time.
ThP43: White Rabbit-Based Time Distribution at NIST Joshua Savory, Jeff Sherman, Stefania Romisch NIST evaluated White Rabbit based time transfer technology as an alternative solution for local time dissemination, allowing on-time secondary time reference points that maintain phase continuity over primary signal disruption. Accuracy and stability are evaluated.
ThP44: A Novel high resolution optical time delay cable measurement system utilized in fibre verification in radio interferometer Roufurd Julie, Thomas Abbott, Manny Padayachee, Lufuno Mafhungo, Renier Siebrits, Johan Burger A long distance optical fibre cable measurement that delivers ~0.2ps delay resolution with capability for high accuracy absolute distance extraction over 10's of microseconds of delay. Used in radio interferometry for verification, but has general applicability in optical transport.
ThP46: The J2 Relativist Periodic Component of GNSS Satellite Clocks Valerio Formichella Discussion of the J2 relativistic effect due the Earth's oblateness on the frequency of GNSS clocks. Expected values for GPS and Galileo and comparison with estimates from data analysis on GPS Block IIF clocks. Effects on the clocks' stability, deformation of the ADEV's bump and consequences.
ThP47: Improvements to the averaged time scale of Mexico to predict UTC Eduardo de Carlos Lopez In this work we report the progress made at CENAM to generate UTC(CNM) using a new approach to calculate the averaged time scale, TA(CNM), in order to improve the UTC prediction. We present preliminary results of this new approach.


Poster Session II: Advanced Optical Oscillators and Techniques

Moderator: Nan Yu

Paper Title Authors Executive Summary
ThP48: Study on the effect of shock acceleration on the ultra-stable optical cavity for space applications Guanjun Xu, Linbo Zhang, Long Chen, Jun Liu, Tao Liu We use FEA to analyze the stress of the given cavity with shock. The FEA results show the larger stress is located at the lower edge of midplane and three constraint surfaces, and it can only bear below 200g shock. To resist the larger shock for it, an auxiliary structure needs to be designed.
ThP49: Development of Ultra-Stable Rb-referenced 420nm Optical Frequency Standard Jingbiao Chen, Shengnan Zhang We achieved a ultra-stable Rb-referenced 420nm optical frequency standard with a stability of 4.1&[times]10-15τ -1/2, showing a great superiority among all compact optical frequency standards no use of PDH system. It is a good candidate of pumping source for Rb active optical frequency standard.
ThP50: Referencing an Ultra-Stable Laser to D2line of 133Cs using Modulated and Unmodulated Spectroscopy Carlos Ortiz, Eduardo De Carlos, Mauricio Lopez In order to elucidate the stability limit of the USL presented, t variations of the frequency diff. between it and the most probable transition of the 133Cs D line are characterized using modulated and unmodulated spectroscopy. The USL is used routinely as master laser in the Mexican Cs fountain.
ThP51: Ultra-stable optical oscillator transfer for precise UV spectroscopy Pablo Cancio Pastor, Alessia Sorgi, Roberto Eramo, Cecilia Clivati The new accurate determination of the Boltzmann constant by precise Doppler spectroscopy of Hg at 253.7 nm requires a primary standard traceable and ultra-stable optical reference at 1014.8 nm. Preliminary results of frequency stability and spectroscopic performances will be presented.
ThP52: The Lasing Realization of Rb Four-level Active Optical Clock JingBiao Chen, Pengyuan Chang The experimental of Rb four-level active optical clock iscarried out, we realize 1367 nm active optical clock laser output.
ThP53: A Compact Pumping Laser at 459 nm with 10-15 Stability for Cs Four-level Active Optical Clock Jingbiao Chen, Tiantian Shi, Duo Pan, Shengnan Zhang, Haosen Shang Utilizing MTS technique, we realize a compact 459 nm pumping laser based on 133Cs 6S 1/2 -7P 1/2 transition with a stability of 1.8E-14/&[prop]τ and decreasing to 8E-15 at 60 s. This stable laser not only can be used as pumping laser in active optical clock, but also an optical frequency standard.
ThP54: Development of Space-borne Narrow Linewidth Laser for Sr Optical Clock Jun LIU, Tao LIU, Guan XU, Lin ZHANG, Long CHEN, Chen JIANG, Xiu ZHANG, Rui DONG We report on our recent progress of the development of the space-borne narrow-linewidth laser prototype for the space Sr optical clock. zhe laser frequency instability is 2E-15@1s after removing the linear frequency drift, the single laser linewidth was measured to be better than 1.3Hz
ThP55: A Cold-Atom Optical Frequency Standard for Optical Fiber Communication by using an Erbium-fiber-based Frequency Comb Jianye Zhao, Haoyuan Lu, Jianxiao Leng, Ping Guo, Jianhui Tu, Dayong Chen We demonstrate a frequency standard based on the Rb two-photon transition, using an Er-fiber Frequency Comb. By introducing the technique of cold atom, our scheme can eliminate most of Doppler-broadening background. The instability of the system can reach 6&[times]10-12 and 4.5&[times]10-13 at 1 s and 1000 s.
ThP56: Phase locking of diode lasers Stephan Falke, Stefan Baumgärtner, Manfred Hager, Christoph Raab, Stephan Ritter In this contribution, we demonstrate the phase lock between two ECDLs as well as between two DFB lasers. With commercial products, phase locks with 99% power in the carrier and servo bandwidth of several MHz are obtained. The require fast feedback makes this a good test ground PDH locks to cavities.
ThP57: Towards a Spaceborne Automatic Laser Frequency Identification and Control System Yingxin Luo, Hongyin Li, Hsien-Chi Yeh We describe a multi-functional digital laser frequency controller for applications of spaceborne laser interferometries, developed base on FPGA and designed with algorithms of real-time system identification, automatic initial calibration, autolocking and re-locking abilities.
ThP58: Portable Lasers With 10-16 Frequency Instability Yanyi Jiang, Xueyan Li, Yuan Yao, Zhiyi Bi, Longsheng Ma For applications in non-laboratory environment, we will present two portable cavities based on a 10 cm ULE cube supported by 4 Viton balls. The cavities are designed to be insensitive to environmental vibrations. The thermal-noise-limited frequency instability of the lasers is 5x10-16.


ThO2.1: Micro/Nano Sensors & Applications

Moderators: Laura Popa and Philip Feng

Paper Title Authors Executive Summary
ThO211: Micro/Nanophotonic Resonators for Sensing Applications Qiang Lin  
ThO212: Micro-Resonator-on-Membrane For Real-time Biosensing Mohammad Mahdavi, Honglei Wang, Amin Abbasalipour, Walter Hu, Siavash Pourkamali Micro-Resonator-on-Membrane (MRoM) is presented as new highly sensitive balance for real-time biosensing. An MRoM is composed of a rectangular resonator separated by a thin SiO2 membrane from backside cavity which houses biologic solution. The MRoM exhibits a sensitivity of -89 Hz.cm2/ng.
ThO213: Monolithical AlN PMUT on pre-processed CMOS substrate Nuria Barniol, Jonathan Muñoz, Francesc Torres, Arantxa Uranga, Vassil Tzanov, Eloi Marigo, Mohanraj Soundara-Pandian AlN PMUTs compatible with pre-processed CMOS substrate are presented with the benefits in terms of fabrication without the complexity to use wafer bonding. Acoustic pressure measures in liquid of 2kPa/V for a single PMUT provide better values than state-of-the-art AlN PMUTs.
ThO214: A 200-nm-gap Titanium Nitride Composite CMOS-MEMS CMUT for Biomedical Ultrasounds Sheng-Shian Li, Tzu-Hsuan Hsu A CMUT is presented with < 200 nm gap based on a tailored TiN-C CMOS-MEMS platform. Single-channel water-immersed ultrasound receiver CMUT with 20 dB amplifier is characterized using a pulser and an unfocused probe at 12 mm atop, exhibiting a sensitivity of 2.28 mV/kPa with only 40 V of dc bias.
ThO215: MEMS Surface Coating Condition Monitoring via Nonlinear Tapping of Resoswitches Wei-Chang Li, Shi-Chuan Lu, Wun-Ruei Du A MEMS resoswitch-enabled surface coating condition monitoring device is demonstrated as a proof of concept that successfully identifies the existence of molecular coating on the surfaces. Such devices can in situ monitor, e.g., anti-stiction coated surfaces of MEMS motion sensors.


ThO2.2: Clocks and Signal Processing

Moderator: TBD

Paper Title Authors Executive Summary
ThO221: 100ppb Telecom-Grade MEMS TCXO for Harsh Environmental Conditions Sassan Tabatabaei Recent technological advances have enabled very high performance MEMS-based TCXO with temperature stability of ±100ppb, aging rates less than 1ppm over 20 years, Allan Deviation less than 3e-11, and low frequency versus temperature slope of 2ppb/C. These devices maintain their performance in harsh environmental conditions such as wide temperature range of -40°C to 105°C, high air flow rate, fast temperature transients, and high shock and vibration environments. These devices resolve real-world challenges in many demanding applications including telecom, network synchronization, and industrial GNSS, delivering system-level performance that exceeds OCXO in some cases. In this talk, I review key technology and architectural elements of the devices, including inherent robustness of MEMS resonators, extremely low noise dual resonator temperature sensing, digital temperature compensation and some recent measurement results. 
ThO222: Low Loss Orthogonal Frequency Coded Surface Acoustic Wave Correlator Filters Marshall Smith, Donald Malocha, Arthur Weeks Single phase unidirectional transducers (SPUDTs) are used to decrease insertion loss of surface acoustic wave (SAW) correlators to facilitate use in radio transmitters and receivers. Insertion loss is decreased from 30dB as seen in previous works to 5dB.
ThO223: Double Loop Frequency Regenerative Dividers Etienne Vaillant, Joël Imbaud, Yannick Gruson, Fabrice Sthal, François-Xavier Esnault, Gilles Cibiel In this paper, a frequency regenerative divider using double closed loops is presented. The principle of this custom built regenerative divider by N is explained. This type of divider as the advantage to increase the division ratio without adding a multiplier inside the feedback loop.
ThO224: Cold-atom-based commercial microwave clock at the 10-15 level Bruno Pelle, Ramon Szmuk, David Holleville, Bruno Desruelle We present a commercial microwave clock based on cold atoms that achieve an extreme stability and accuracy in the 10-15 range within a day, with a turnkey product dedicated for continuous long-term operation.
ThO225: Comparison of Two All-Digital Frequency Synthesizers with a Jitter Removal Circuit Charis Basetas, Nikos Temenos, Paul Peter Sotiriadis Our work presents two all-digital frequency synthesizers which are implemented in FPGA. We also implemented a jitter circuit to remove the phase noise from the digital outputs.


ThO2.3: Vapor-Cell and Compact Microwave Clocks

Moderator: Francois-Xavier Esnault

Paper Title Authors Executive Summary
ThO231: Operating a 171Yb+ Microwave Ion Clock in a Continuous Mode Peter Schwindt We present a 171Yb+ microwave ion clock that operates in a continuous microwave-optical-double-resonance mode. The effects of the light shift from the 369-nm laser light is studied with respect to the performance of the clock.
ThO232: A CPT-based Cs cell clock using the auto-balanced Ramsey interrogation protocol Rodolphe Boudot, Grégoire Coget, Moustafa Abdel Hafiz, Michael Petersen, Stéphane Guérandel, Emeric de Clercq, Thomas Zanon-Willette, Claudio Calosso We demonstrate the application of the auto-balanced Ramsey (ABR) interrogation protocol onto a Cs cell microwave atomic clock based on CPT. The preliminary clock fractional frequency stability is at the level of 3.1 × 10 -13 τ -1/2, averaging down to the level of 7 ×10 -15 at 2000 s integration time.
ThO233: Eliminating Light-Shift Jumps in Rb Atomic Clocks: Active Stabilization of rf-Discharge Lamp Brightness James Camparo, Michael Huang, Andrew Stapleton We describe active stabilization of Rb light emitted by an rf-discharge lamp. Since lamp fluctuations likely drive random-walk frequency noise in high-quality Rb clocks (via the light-shift), this type of stabilization could significantly improve Rb clock long-term frequency stability.
ThO234: Selected studies on high performance laser-pumped Rubidium atomic clocks Gaetano Mileti, Christoph Affolderbach, Nil Almat, Mohammadreza Gharavipour, Florian Gruet, William Moreno, Matthieu Pellaton We report on a high performance Rb atomic clock. We evaluated two alternative technologies: a frequency-doubled laser source and a 3D-printed microwave cavity. We performed spectroscopic and metrological investigations on the medium and long-term frequency stability.
ThO235: Pulsed Optically Pumped Rb Clock: Laboratory Prototype at VNIIFTRI Viacheslav Baryshev, Mikhail Aleynikov, Georgiy Osipenko, Igor Blinov, Sergey Donchenko The performance of the pulsed optically pumped Rb clock laboratory prototype is reported. The optimized Ramsey fringe contrast values exceeding 40% at linewidths of 150 – 200 Hz have been achieved.